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Heart surgery can correct problems with the heart if other treatments haven't worked or can't be used. The most common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body is connected, or grafted, to a blocked coronary (heart) artery.
Doctors also use heart surgery to
- Repair or replace heart valves, which control blood flow through the heart
- Repair abnormal or damaged structures in the heart
- Implant medical devices that help control the heartbeat or support heart function and blood flow
- Replace a damaged heart with a healthy heart from a donor
- Treat heart failure and coronary heart disease
- Control abnormal heart rhythms
Heart surgery has risks, even though its results often are excellent. Risks include bleeding, infection, irregular heartbeats, and stroke. The risk is higher if you are older or a woman. The risk is also higher if you have other diseases or conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, lung disease, or peripheral arterial disease.
- Track 1-1Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
- Track 1-2Valve-Sparing Aortic Root Replacement
- Track 1-3Open heart surgery
- Track 1-4Trans myocardial Laser Revascularization
- Track 1-5Off-Pump Heart Surgery
- Track 1-6Development of Novel Anti-Ischaemic Agents
Many people with an implanted heart device resume their normal daily activities after full recovery from surgery. However, there may be certain situations that your doctor will ask you to avoid. Your doctor or nurse will provide guidance for your particular condition, but these are some general guidelines to follow after your recovery.
As with any medical procedure, there are risks involved in a heart device implant and results may vary. Talk to your doctor about any specific concerns or activities — such as returning to work or participating in exercise or sports — that you may have. After you receive your heart device you may also still have to take medication as directed and periodically your doctor will need to monitor your device.
- Track 2-1Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
- Track 2-2Left ventricular Assist Device (LVAD)
- Track 2-3The Heart Ware’s Ventricular Assist System
- Track 2-4The Levacor Heart Pump
Cardiac Nursing has a place with that works with patients who experience the ill effects of different states of the cardiovascular framework. Cardiovascular medical caretakers or cardiac nurses cure those conditions, for example, unsteady angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary course sickness, congestive heart disappointment, myocardial dead tissue and heart dysrhythmia under the supervision of a cardiologist. Heart medical nurse practitioners have the real work to do in basic circumstance. They are prepared for various practice range, including coronary consideration units (CCU), heart catheterization, serious patient consideration units (ICU), working theaters, cardiovascular recovery focuses, cardiovascular consideration focus clinical exploration, cardiovascular surgery wards, cardiovascular concentrated consideration units (CVICU), and cardiovascular restorative wards
- Track 3-1Stress test evaluations
- Track 3-2Hemodynamic Monitoring
- Track 3-3Monitoring cardiac and vascular readings
- Track 3-4Intensive haemodialysis
- Track 3-5Caring for Heart Transplant Patients
Cardiovascular pharmacology deals with the medication of cardiac diseases. The Cardiac Drugs are used to treat conditions of the heart or the circulatory or vascular system. Many classes of cardiovascular agents are available to treat the various cardiovascular conditions. In this sub topic we have Sodium, potassium, calcium channel blockers, ACE-inhibitors and Cardiac biomarkers.
- Cardiovascular drugs
- Drug Discovery
- Cardiac Medications
- Track 4-1Drug-Induced Cardiac Toxicity
- Track 4-2Novel Anti-Inflammatory Therapies for Atherosclerosis
- Track 4-3Beta Blockers Blocking
- Track 4-4Cardiac Glycoside
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing and repolarizing during each heartbeat. It is very commonly performed to detect any cardiac problems.
Cardiac catheterizations can help cardiologists diagnose and treat many different heart problems.
The procedure may be done on kids or teens to:
- Look at how the heart and blood vessels are formed and connected.
- Check the pressures and oxygen levels in the heart and blood vessels.
- Treat a congenital heart defect (a heart problem that a baby is born with).
- Treat an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
- Open up narrowed blood vessels (called angioplasty ).
Repair leaky or narrow heart valves.
Angiograms are performed in the catheterization (cath) lab of a hospital. Your health care team will give you specific instructions and talk to you about any medications you take. General guidelines include:
- Don't eat or drink anything after midnight before your angiogram.
- Take all your medications to the hospital with you in their original bottles. Ask your doctor about whether or not to take your usual morning medications.
- If you have diabetes, ask your doctor if you should take insulin or other oral medications before your angiogram.
- Track 7-1Microangiography
- Track 7-2Percutaneous valve replacement
- Track 7-3Neuro-Vascular Angiography
- Track 7-4Catheter & Stent
Cardiovascular surgeons operate on your heart and blood vessels to repair damage caused by diseases or disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Many times, a diagnosis of heart disease begins with your primary care doctor, who refers you to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she refers you to a cardiovascular surgeon, who becomes a new member of your heart-health team. (Even after heart surgery, you remain under the care of your cardiologist.)
Cardiovascular surgeons perform many different types of operations, including heart valve repair and replacement, heart defect repair, coronary artery bypass, aneurysm repair, transmyocardial laser revascularization, and heart transplantation. They also perform operations on the blood vessels in your body, including the aorta—the body’s main blood supplier. Heart surgery today may also include the use or implantation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), mechanical devices that “assist” the failing heart by helping it pump blood throughout the body.
Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. Andreas Gruentzig is considered the father of interventional cardiology after the development of angioplasty by interventional radiologists.
A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. This most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery (but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein) and cannulating the heart under ray visualization (most commonly fluoroscopy). The radial artery may also be used for cannulation; this approach offers several advantages, including the accessibility of the artery in most patients, the easy control of bleeding even in anticoagulated patients, the enhancement of comfort because patients are capable of sitting up and walking immediately following the procedure, and the near absence of clinically significant sequelae in patients with a normal Allen test. Downsides to this approach include spasm of the artery and pain, inability to use larger catheters needed in some procedures, and more radiation exposure
The main feature of coronary care is the availability of telemetry or the continuous monitoring of the cardiac rhythm by electrocardiography. This allows early intervention with medication, cardioversion or defibrillation, improving the prognosis. As arrhythmias are relatively common in this group, patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina are routinely admitted to the coronary care unit. For other indications, such as atrial fibrillation, a specific indication is generally necessary, while for others, such as heart block, coronary care unit admission is standard.
Cardiovascular Drugs refers to Prescription drugs and medicines for diseases relating to the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels. Studies in these areas include: heart failure, coronary artery disease, high cholesterol, blood clots, circulation disorders, and others.
This reduces blood pressure and the heart's work load. Examples of agents in this class include chlorothiazide, amiloride, furosemide, bumetanide, indapamide and spironolactone. Vasodilators - These drugs relax the blood vessels and cause blood pressure to fall.
The cardiovascular disease epidemic has challenged the medical community since Anitschkow and Chalatow established cholesterol's role in causing atherosclerosis (Advances in unraveling the pathogenesis of the disease have been impressive. The concept of a risk factor—which served to establish a research model in the investigation of chronic diseases—has been a giant step in clinical scientific inquiry.
In parallel, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that interventions on the causal risk factors can favorably modify the course of the disease. Although the cardiovascular disease epidemic has declined steadily since the late 20th century , most agree that the knowledge gained of the genesis and treatment of the underlying causes of this disease has not been effectively translated into clinical practice.
Health societies recommend the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when a change in the patient's clinical status occurs and when new data from an echocardiogram would result in the physician changing the patient's care. Health societies do not recommend routine testing when the patient has no change in clinical status or when a physician is unlikely to change care for the patient based on the results of testing.
A common example of overuse of echocardiography when not indicated is the use of routine testing in response to a patient diagnosis of mild valvular heart disease In this case, patients are often asymptomatic for years before the onset of deterioration and the results of the echocardiogram would not result in a change in care without other change in clinical status.
- Track 13-1Cardiac-gated imaging techniques
- Track 13-2Transesophageal echocardiogram
- Track 13-3Pacemaker monitoring
- Track 13-4Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- Track 13-5Heart rate monitor
A physician may recommend cardiac imaging to support a diagnosis of a heart condition.
Medical specialty professional organizations discourage the use of routine cardiac imaging during pre-operative assessment for patients about to undergo low or mid-risk non-cardiac surgery because the procedure carries risks and is unlikely to result in the change of a patient's management. Stress cardiac imaging is discouraged in the evaluation of patients without cardiac symptoms or in routine follow-ups
- Track 14-1Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- Track 14-2Intravascular ultrasound
- Track 14-3Computed tomography angiography
- Track 14-4Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Since a pacemaker only administers low-energy impulses, it is not designed for times when a person begins to experience ventricular fibrillation, a condition where the heart quivers rather than beats. It is also possible for a pacemaker to malfunction, failing to deliver the lifesaving intervention. However, every AED instruction kit will say not to use an AED on a person with a pacemaker.
External defibrillation may still be necessary for a person with a pacemaker. If the implanted pacemaker delivers a low-energy shock while you are attempting to use an AED or another defibrillator, you simply wait for 30 to 60 seconds for the pacemaker to complete its therapy cycle before administering the shock. While it is possible that the energy from an external defibrillator, AED or otherwise, may damage the pacemaker, these devices are designed to withstand external defibrillation.
- Track 15-1Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
- Track 15-2Cardioverter-Defibrillator
If you pair regular exercise with a well-balanced diet, you'll notice immediate changes in mood and energy levels. More importantly, consistently eating well and exercising will improve your health and extend your lifespan. The guidelines are relatively simple: engage in at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise and two full-body strength training sessions each week and eat a nutritionally diverse diet, low in fat and sodium, but high in fiber. Ask your health care provider to help you devise a more detailed diet and fitness plan.
- Weight Control
- Track 16-1Circadian rhythm
- Track 16-2Cardiovascular risk in athletes
- Track 16-3Cardiac exercise science
- Track 16-4Exercise stress testing
The Division of Pediatric Cardiology is responsible for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, performing diagnostic procedures such as echocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, and electrophysiology studies, and for the on-going management of the sequel of heart disease in infants, children and adolescents. The various Inflammatory heart diseases include Myocarditis, Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that affects the blood vessels. There are also other Pericardial diseases that can present clinically as acute pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis. Infective endocarditis is a form of endocarditis. It is an inflammation of the inner tissues of the heart.
- Track 17-1Pediatric Heart Transplantation
- Track 17-2Pediatric Atherosclerosis
- Track 17-3Pediatric Eisenmenger Syndrome
- Track 17-4Pediatric cardiac tumors
- Track 17-5Specific congenital heart defects